The orphans CSS property refers to the minimum number of lines in a block container that must be left at the bottom of the page. This property is normally used to control how page breaks occur.

Initial value2
Applies toblock container elements
Mediavisual, paged
Computed valueas specified
Canonical orderthe unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar


/* Numerical value */
orphans: 3;

/* Global values */
orphans: inherit;
orphans: initial;
orphans: unset;


Only positive values are allowed.
Takes the same specified value as the property for the element's parent.

Formal syntax



Specification Status Comment
CSS Fragmentation Module Level 3
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Working Draft Extends orphans to apply to any type of fragment, like pages, regions or columns.
CSS Multi-column Layout Module
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Recommendations to consider widows in relation with columns
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support 25.0 Not supported 8 9.2 Not supported
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support 25.0 Not supported ? ? Not supported

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

 Last updated by: Sebastianz,