The CSS ::after pseudo-element matches a virtual last child of the selected element. It is typically used to add cosmetic content to an element by using the content CSS property. This element is inline by default.


/* CSS2 syntax */
element:after  { style properties }

/* CSS3 syntax */
element::after { style properties }

The ::after notation (with two colons) was introduced in CSS 3 in order to establish a discrimination between pseudo-classes and pseudo-elements. Browsers also accept the notation :after introduced in CSS 2.


Simple usage

Let's create two classes: one for boring paragraphs and one for exciting ones. We can then mark each paragraph by adding a pseudo-element to the end of it.

<p class="boring-text">Here is some good old boring text.</p>
<p>Here is some moderate text that is neither boring nor exciting.</p>
<p class="exciting-text">Contributing to MDN is easy and fun.
Just hit the edit button to add new live samples, or improve existing samples.</p>
.exciting-text::after {
  content: "<- now this *is* exciting!"; 
  color: green;

.boring-text::after {
   content: "<- BORING!";
   color: red;


Decorative example

We can style text or images in the content property almost any way we want.

<span class="ribbon">Notice where the orange box is.</span>
.ribbon {
  background-color: #5BC8F7;

.ribbon::after {
  content: "Look at this orange box.";
  background-color: #FFBA10;
  border-color: black;
  border-style: dotted;



The following example shows the use of the ::after pseudo-element in conjunction with the attr() CSS expression and a data-descr custom data attribute to create a pure-CSS, glossary-like tooltip. Checkout the live preview below, or you can see this example on a separate page.

<p>Here is the live example of the above code.<br />
  We have some <span data-descr="collection of words and punctuation">text</span> here with a few
  <span data-descr="small popups which also hide again">tooltips</span>.<br />
  Don't be shy, hover over to take a <span data-descr="not to be taken literally">look</span>.
span[data-descr] {
  position: relative;
  text-decoration: underline;
  color: #00F;
  cursor: help;

span[data-descr]:hover::after {
  content: attr(data-descr);
  position: absolute;
  left: 0;
  top: 24px;
  min-width: 200px;
  border: 1px #aaaaaa solid;
  border-radius: 10px;
  background-color: #ffffcc;
  padding: 12px;
  color: #000000;
  font-size: 14px;
  z-index: 1;



Specification Status Comment
CSS Pseudo-Elements Level 4
The definition of '::after' in that specification.
Working Draft No significant changes to the previous specification.
CSS Transitions
The definition of 'transitions on pseudo-element properties' in that specification.
Working Draft Allows transitions on properties defined on pseudo-elements.
CSS Animations
The definition of 'animations on pseudo-element properties' in that specification.
Working Draft Allows animations on properties defined on pseudo-elements.
Selectors Level 3
The definition of '::after' in that specification.
Recommendation Introduces the two-colon syntax.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of '::after' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition, using the one-colon syntax

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
:after support (Yes) 1.0 (1.7 or earlier)[1] 8.0 4 4.0
::after support (Yes) 1.5 (1.8)[1] 9.0 7 4.0
Support of animations and transitions 26 4.0 (2.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
:after support (Yes) ? ? ? ?
::after support (Yes) ? ? ? ?
Support of animations and transitions (Yes) 4.0 (4.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported

[1] Firefox prior to version 3.5 only implemented the CSS 2.0 version of :after. Not allowed were position, float, list-style-* and some display properties. Firefox 3.5 removed those restrictions.

See Also